By Carl D. Regillo MD
Reports the elemental anatomy of the retina and diagnostic ways to retinal sickness. comprises vast examinations of issues of the retina and vitreous, together with sickness, irritation, hereditary dystrophies, abnormalities and trauma. Discusses laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008-2009.
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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Fluids used range from contact lens wett ing solutions to viscolls clear gel solutions. The more viscous the solution, however, the more it interferes with the qu ality of any photography or angiography performed shortly after the examination. In contrast, non-contact lenses use the power of the lens in combination with the cornea to produce an"inve rted image with a wider field of view. The biconvex 19 20 • Retina and Vitreous indirect lenses used with the slit lamp do not touch the cornea, and thus topical anesthes ia is not necessary.
1988; 106 :348- 352 . Electro-oculogram and RPE Responses Electro-oc ulogram As described in Chapter 1, the RPE is a monolayer of cells that are linked by tight junctions near the apical surface. These junctions separate the apical and basal membranes of the pigment epithelium, which have different ionic permeability characte ristics that lead to the generation of a voltage across the cell (Fig 3-9). This voltage, called the standing potential, is positive at the cornea and measures 6-10 mV Although the RPE itself is not a light receptor, activation of the photo receptors in the neurosensory retina can lead to changes in the ionic compositio n of the extracellular (s ubretinal) space or to the release of transmitter substances that produce an electrical respo nse in the RPE.
We still do not know what substances mediate between the capture of light by the photo receptors and the slow voltage changes in the RPE, although current evidence suggests that the messenger substance may be derived fro m the photoreceptors. The light response of the standing potential develops so slowly that it is hard to measure directly without artifacts from movement or electrical drift. To resolve this problem, clinics use the indirect technique of electro-oculography, in which electrodes are placed at either side of the eye (usually on the skin at the canthi ), and the voltage between them is recorded as the patient looks back and forth (Fig 3-10).
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by Carl D. Regillo MD